软件水平考试_(中级) 软件评测师_历年真题_2016年11月《软件评测师》上午真题

时间: 2020-08-23 20:40 来源: 网络 作者: 无忧题库


1. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct,because no two parts are alike(at least above the statement level).If they are,we make the two similar parts into one,a(1),open or closed.In this respect software systems differ profoundly from computers,buildings,or automobiles,where repeated elements abound.Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build;they have very large numbers of states.This makes conceiving,describing,and testing them hard.Software systems have orders of magnitude more(2)than computers do.Likewise,a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger size;it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements.In most cases,the elements interact with each other in some(3)fashion,and the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly.The complexity of software is a(an)(4)property,not an accidental one.Hence descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence.Mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides for three centuries by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena,deriving,properties from the models,and verifying those properties experimentally.This worked because the complexities(5)in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena.It does not work when the complexities are the essence.Many of the classical problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size.Not only technical problems but management problems as well come from the complexity. 2、____
A.states
B.parts
C.conditions
D.expressions
答案:A
解析:软件实体规模上或许比其他任何人类创造的结构要更为复杂,因为没有两个部分是一样的(至少在语句级以上)。如果他们一样,我们便将这两个相似的部分合到一起,成为一个子程序,打开或关闭。在这一点上,软件系统与计算机、建筑或汽车经常混合使用一些重复的元件有很大区别。数字计算机本身比人类所建造的大多数事物都要复杂,他们有超级多的状态。这使得对他们进行想象、描述和测试都很困难。软件系统的状态数目更是比计算机的超出几个数量级。同理,软件实体的扩展不单是这一批元件变大一点,它必将是大量不同元件都有增加。在大多数情况下,构件以非线性的方式相互作用,而整体的复杂性远超线性增加。软件的复杂的特点具有必然性,并非偶然。因此,对于软件实体的描述,剥离了它的复杂性往往就等于剥离了它的本质。过去这三个世纪,通过对复杂的现象构建出简化模型,从模型的属性再倒推,并通过实验验证这些属性,数学和物理科学取得了长足的进步。这之所以行之有效,是因为模型中忽略掉的复杂特性并不是现象中重要的本质属性。而当这些复杂性很重要时,这种方法就会失效。



2. 对于逻辑表达式((b1&b2)||in),需要( )个测试用例才能完成条件组合覆盖。
A.2
B.4
C.8
D.26
答案:B
解析:多条件覆盖(MCC):也称条件组合覆盖,设计足够的测试用例,使得每个判定中条件的各种可能组合都至少出现一次。本题中&被认为是位运算,则MCC的测试用例数应为:2^2=4如果作为逻辑与运算,则有3个条件,符合MCC的测试用例数应为:2^3=8



3. 以下关于性能测试的叙述中,不正确的是( )。
A.性能测试的目的是为了验证软件系统是否能够达到用户提出的性能指标
B.性能测试不用于发现软件系统中存在的性能瓶颈
C.性能测试类型包括负载测试,强度测试,容量测试等
D.性能测试常通过工具来模拟大量用户操作,增加系统负载
答案:B
解析:性能测试用来保证产品发布后系统的性能能够满足用户需求。性能测试通常存在性能调优与性能评测两种性能测试策略。性能评测主要包括:在真实环境一下,检查系统服务等级的满足情况,评估并报告整个系统的性能;对系统的未来容量作出预测和规划。性能评测室性能调优的基础,性能调优的步骤如下:查找形成系统瓶颈或者故障的根本原因;进行性能调整和优化;评估性能调整的效果。



4. 根据输出对输入的依赖关系设计测试用例的黑盒测试方法是( )。
A.等价类划分法
B.因果图法
C.边界值分析法
D.场景法
答案:B
解析:因果图法:是从自然语言书写的程序规格说明的描述中找出因(输入条件)和果(输出或程序状态的改变),通过因果图转换为判断表。



5. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct,because no two parts are alike(at least above the statement level).If they are,we make the two similar parts into one,a(1),open or closed.In this respect software systems differ profoundly from computers,buildings,or automobiles,where repeated elements abound.Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build;they have very large numbers of states.This makes conceiving,describing,and testing them hard.Software systems have orders of magnitude more(2)than computers do.Likewise,a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger size;it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements.In most cases,the elements interact with each other in some(3)fashion,and the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly.The complexity of software is a(an)(4)property,not an accidental one.Hence descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence.Mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides for three centuries by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena,deriving,properties from the models,and verifying those properties experimentally.This worked because the complexities(5)in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena.It does not work when the complexities are the essence.Many of the classical problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size.Not only technical problems but management problems as well come from the complexity. 4、____
A.surface
B.outside
C.exterior
D.essential
答案:D
解析:软件实体规模上或许比其他任何人类创造的结构要更为复杂,因为没有两个部分是一样的(至少在语句级以上)。如果他们一样,我们便将这两个相似的部分合到一起,成为一个子程序,打开或关闭。在这一点上,软件系统与计算机、建筑或汽车经常混合使用一些重复的元件有很大区别。数字计算机本身比人类所建造的大多数事物都要复杂,他们有超级多的状态。这使得对他们进行想象、描述和测试都很困难。软件系统的状态数目更是比计算机的超出几个数量级。同理,软件实体的扩展不单是这一批元件变大一点,它必将是大量不同元件都有增加。在大多数情况下,构件以非线性的方式相互作用,而整体的复杂性远超线性增加。软件的复杂的特点具有必然性,并非偶然。因此,对于软件实体的描述,剥离了它的复杂性往往就等于剥离了它的本质。过去这三个世纪,通过对复杂的现象构建出简化模型,从模型的属性再倒推,并通过实验验证这些属性,数学和物理科学取得了长足的进步。这之所以行之有效,是因为模型中忽略掉的复杂特性并不是现象中重要的本质属性。而当这些复杂性很重要时,这种方法就会失效。



6. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct,because no two parts are alike(at least above the statement level).If they are,we make the two similar parts into one,a(1),open or closed.In this respect software systems differ profoundly from computers,buildings,or automobiles,where repeated elements abound.Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build;they have very large numbers of states.This makes conceiving,describing,and testing them hard.Software systems have orders of magnitude more(2)than computers do.Likewise,a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger size;it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements.In most cases,the elements interact with each other in some(3)fashion,and the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly.The complexity of software is a(an)(4)property,not an accidental one.Hence descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence.Mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides for three centuries by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena,deriving,properties from the models,and verifying those properties experimentally.This worked because the complexities(5)in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena.It does not work when the complexities are the essence.Many of the classical problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size.Not only technical problems but management problems as well come from the complexity. 5、____
A.fixed
B.included
C.ignored
D.tabilized
答案:C
解析:软件实体规模上或许比其他任何人类创造的结构要更为复杂,因为没有两个部分是一样的(至少在语句级以上)。如果他们一样,我们便将这两个相似的部分合到一起,成为一个子程序,打开或关闭。在这一点上,软件系统与计算机、建筑或汽车经常混合使用一些重复的元件有很大区别。数字计算机本身比人类所建造的大多数事物都要复杂,他们有超级多的状态。这使得对他们进行想象、描述和测试都很困难。软件系统的状态数目更是比计算机的超出几个数量级。同理,软件实体的扩展不单是这一批元件变大一点,它必将是大量不同元件都有增加。在大多数情况下,构件以非线性的方式相互作用,而整体的复杂性远超线性增加。软件的复杂的特点具有必然性,并非偶然。因此,对于软件实体的描述,剥离了它的复杂性往往就等于剥离了它的本质。过去这三个世纪,通过对复杂的现象构建出简化模型,从模型的属性再倒推,并通过实验验证这些属性,数学和物理科学取得了长足的进步。这之所以行之有效,是因为模型中忽略掉的复杂特性并不是现象中重要的本质属性。而当这些复杂性很重要时,这种方法就会失效。



7. 以下关于测试方法的叙述中,不正确的是( )。
A.根据被测代码是否可见分为白盒测试和黑盒测试
B.黑盒测试一般用来确认软件功能的正确性和可操作性
C.静态测试主要是对软件的编程格式M结构等方面进行评估
D.动态测试不需要实际执行程序
答案:D
解析:动态测试是指通过人工或使用工具运行程序进行检查、分析程序的执行状态和程序的外部表现。所以选项D是错误的描述。



8. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct,because no two parts are alike(at least above the statement level).If they are,we make the two similar parts into one,a(1),open or closed.In this respect software systems differ profoundly from computers,buildings,or automobiles,where repeated elements abound.Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build;they have very large numbers of states.This makes conceiving,describing,and testing them hard.Software systems have orders of magnitude more(2)than computers do.Likewise,a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger size;it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements.In most cases,the elements interact with each other in some(3)fashion,and the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly.The complexity of software is a(an)(4)property,not an accidental one.Hence descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence.Mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides for three centuries by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena,deriving,properties from the models,and verifying those properties experimentally.This worked because the complexities(5)in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena.It does not work when the complexities are the essence.Many of the classical problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size.Not only technical problems but management problems as well come from the complexity. 1、____
A.task
B.job
C.subroutine
D.program
答案:C
解析:软件实体规模上或许比其他任何人类创造的结构要更为复杂,因为没有两个部分是一样的(至少在语句级以上)。如果他们一样,我们便将这两个相似的部分合到一起,成为一个子程序,打开或关闭。在这一点上,软件系统与计算机、建筑或汽车经常混合使用一些重复的元件有很大区别。数字计算机本身比人类所建造的大多数事物都要复杂,他们有超级多的状态。这使得对他们进行想象、描述和测试都很困难。软件系统的状态数目更是比计算机的超出几个数量级。同理,软件实体的扩展不单是这一批元件变大一点,它必将是大量不同元件都有增加。在大多数情况下,构件以非线性的方式相互作用,而整体的复杂性远超线性增加。软件的复杂的特点具有必然性,并非偶然。因此,对于软件实体的描述,剥离了它的复杂性往往就等于剥离了它的本质。过去这三个世纪,通过对复杂的现象构建出简化模型,从模型的属性再倒推,并通过实验验证这些属性,数学和物理科学取得了长足的进步。这之所以行之有效,是因为模型中忽略掉的复杂特性并不是现象中重要的本质属性。而当这些复杂性很重要时,这种方法就会失效。



9. Software entities are more complex for their size than perhaps any other human construct,because no two parts are alike(at least above the statement level).If they are,we make the two similar parts into one,a(1),open or closed.In this respect software systems differ profoundly from computers,buildings,or automobiles,where repeated elements abound.Digital computers are themselves more complex than most things people build;they have very large numbers of states.This makes conceiving,describing,and testing them hard.Software systems have orders of magnitude more(2)than computers do.Likewise,a scaling-up of a software entity is not merely a repetition of the same elements in larger size;it is necessarily an increase in the number of different elements.In most cases,the elements interact with each other in some(3)fashion,and the complexity of the whole increases much more than linearly.The complexity of software is a(an)(4)property,not an accidental one.Hence descriptions of a software entity that abstract away its complexity often abstract away its essence.Mathematics and the physical sciences made great strides for three centuries by constructing simplified models of complex phenomena,deriving,properties from the models,and verifying those properties experimentally.This worked because the complexities(5)in the models were not the essential properties of the phenomena.It does not work when the complexities are the essence.Many of the classical problems of developing software products derive from this essential complexity and its nonlinear increases with size.Not only technical problems but management problems as well come from the complexity. 3、____
A.linear
B.nonlinear
C.parallel
D.additive
答案:B
解析:软件实体规模上或许比其他任何人类创造的结构要更为复杂,因为没有两个部分是一样的(至少在语句级以上)。如果他们一样,我们便将这两个相似的部分合到一起,成为一个子程序,打开或关闭。在这一点上,软件系统与计算机、建筑或汽车经常混合使用一些重复的元件有很大区别。数字计算机本身比人类所建造的大多数事物都要复杂,他们有超级多的状态。这使得对他们进行想象、描述和测试都很困难。软件系统的状态数目更是比计算机的超出几个数量级。同理,软件实体的扩展不单是这一批元件变大一点,它必将是大量不同元件都有增加。在大多数情况下,构件以非线性的方式相互作用,而整体的复杂性远超线性增加。软件的复杂的特点具有必然性,并非偶然。因此,对于软件实体的描述,剥离了它的复杂性往往就等于剥离了它的本质。过去这三个世纪,通过对复杂的现象构建出简化模型,从模型的属性再倒推,并通过实验验证这些属性,数学和物理科学取得了长足的进步。这之所以行之有效,是因为模型中忽略掉的复杂特性并不是现象中重要的本质属性。而当这些复杂性很重要时,这种方法就会失效。



10. 以下关于边界值测试法的叙述中,不正确的是( )。
A.边界值分析法仅需考虑输入域边界,不用考虑输出域边界
B.边界值分析法是对等价类划分方法的补充
C.错误更容易发生在输入输出边界上而不是输入输出范围的内部
D.测试数据应尽可能选取边界上的值
答案:A
解析:边界值分析法需要考虑输入域的边界和输出域的边界。




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